Saturday, May 23, 2020

Abortion A Medical Procedure - 1213 Words

Abortion is, as defined by Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary, â€Å"a medical procedure used to end a pregnancy and cause the death of the fetus.† A procedure done within the first 9 weeks of pregnancy is done with medicines and the effects are similar to that of a natural miscarriage. This medicine can also be used from 9-20 weeks into pregnancy with heavier doses of the medicine. From 7-15 weeks of pregnancy, a suction termination is performed. This is where they use anesthetic and a suction tube is inserted into the womb and the fetus and surrounding tissue is removed. A late abortion from 20-24 weeks of pregnancy will require an overnight stay at a hospital. There are two options: a surgical two-stage abortion and a medically induced abortion. The first stage of a two-stage abortion will stop the heartbeat of the fetus and the second stage will be performed the next day and will involve removing the fetus and tissue. A medically induced abortion is where they give you a medicine that causes labor-like contractions and the procedure is similar to a late miscarriage. Abortion has been around for as early as 1550 BC. It was done before â€Å"quickening† or when the baby started to move by inserting a plant fiber covered with honey and crushed dates. In 1821, Connecticut put up a law about selling the poison that made abortions happen, but didn’t have a law about the women who took it. The early 1900’s were when most of the states in the U.S. had banned abortion. All 50 states had outlawedShow MoreRelatedIs Abortion A Medical Procedure?966 Words   |  4 Pages Abortion is the name given to a medical procedure, which involves the killing of a foetus, which is a baby. You are one in 250 million sperm cells that made it to the egg to create you surroundings Even at the 6th day you are special, around 2/3rd of embryos fail at this stage, but you made it. You proved that you were healthy enough to be embedded in your mothers lining. By week four your tiny little heart already has a beat. At week four your face has already started to take shape, and at 8Read MoreAbortion Is A Medical Procedure Essay1522 Words   |  7 PagesAbortion is a medical procedure done to terminate a human pregnancy and is performed, generally, within the first 28 weeks of conception (WebMD, n.d.). In America, abortion is a hot button topic for debate. Many laws have been enacted and changed over the years to control who can or cannot have this procedure done throughout the states. Abortion has a vast history, variety of procedures, and some interesting data specific to the state of Arkansas. Even before Roe VS. Wade, women had been terminatingRead MoreAbortion : The Only Medical Procedure1251 Words   |  6 PagesAbortion in Queensland is the only medical procedure that is still considered a criminal offence in the Criminal Code Act 1999 (Qld). Since the abortion laws were introduced societies attitudes, safe medical practices and women’s status in Australian society have changed. As a result the current laws do not reflect modern day’s society’s view and does not effectively protect stakeholder’s rights. Abortion should be decriminalised and made legal up to 17 weeks. However abortion past 17 weeks can onlyRead MoreAbortion As A Medical Or Surgical Procedure1443 Words   |  6 Pages Abortion is described as a medical or surgical procedure to remove a fetus and the placenta from a woman’s uterus by a trained healthcare worker ( After hearing a case named Roe vs. Wade the Supreme Court, abortion was made legal in the United States in 1973. For a very long time, I was against abortion due to lack of information and exposure to other cultures. Because I grow up in a very religious household, the word abortion was definitely not part of the vocabularyRead MoreAbortion : A Common Medical Procedure979 Words   |  4 PagesAbortion remains a common medical procedure in today’s society, even though its rates have steadily dropped since 2000. Studies show that one in three women will have an abortion sometime in their life. There has been a constant religious and political debates between health care and abortion services. Many people believe they shouldn’t have to pay for their own abortion, just like they don’t hav e to pay for their birth control, doctor visits, or dental. This is an accusation that many pro-life peopleRead MoreAbortion Is The Most Common Medical Procedures Essay1702 Words   |  7 PagesAbortion is removing the fetus or embryo from the uterus before it is ready to be born. Spontaneous, which is also referred to as a miscarriage and the purposeful abortion, which is an induced abortion are the two major forms of abortion. Having a professional medical procedure conducted for an induced abortion is the safest way to handle the abortion under the local law. Annually, abortions are the most common medical procedures done in the United States, over 40 percent of women have terminatedRead MoreAbortion And The Social Aspects Of Abortion1683 Words   |  7 Pagesin Australia will have an abortion procedure in their life . Abortion data is only gathered by South Australia, Western Australia and the Northern Territory. However, South Australia is the only state to publish data and r eport findings annually. Abortion is a heavy topic which has the nation spilt into two groups; pro-life or pro-choice. Pro-life is in favour of the foetus and they believe that by killing the foetus it is equivalent to murder. Pro-choice is for abortion, as they believe that theRead MoreAbortion Is The Ending Of Pregnancy1341 Words   |  6 Pages  Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing a fetus or embryo from the womb before it can survive on its own. surgery has lower risk of side effects. When allowed by local law abortion in the developed world is and has long been one of the safest procedures in medicine. Uncomplicated abortions do not cause any long term mental or physical problems. Every year unsafe abortions cause 47,000 deaths and 5 million hospital admissions. Around 44 million abortions occur each year in the world, withRead MoreShould Medical Abortion Be Legal? Essay1555 Words   |  7 Pagesmillion abortions performed in the U.S., and by the age of 45, 30% of women would have had an abortion. When considering having an abortion, the surgeon must first indicate how many weeks is the patient because there is different procedures for different week stages. Abortion alone is very dangerous, therefore there are many risks that the patient must consider before agreeing to it. First the patient must decide to what type of abortion they want to go with because there is medical abortion and there’sRead MoreSelf-Induced Abortion Essay1171 Words   |  5 Pagesgoing to the Hospital to get a proper procedure. Immigrant women, like this one, are deciding to abort their own baby instead of leaving the procedure to medical experts. Many consequences arise when immigrant women used different types of methods to abort their child because the fear of deportation or being shun by their community. Immigrant women should leave the abortion method to medical experts regardless of personal problems that might arise later on. Abortion is defined as the removal of a fetus

Monday, May 18, 2020

Business Ethics Essay - 1202 Words

How to behave toward oneself and toward other individuals is a matter of making choices: whether to be friendly or unfriendly; whether to tell the truth or lie; whether to be generous or greedy; whether to study in order to pass an exam or to spend valuable study time watching television and cheat to pass it. These, and all other questions about how people act toward themselves and one another are dealt with in a field of study called ethics. Another name for ethics is morality. Because both words suggest customary ways of behavior, they are somewhat misleading. It had to do with what should or should not be done. Divide practical wisdom into two parts: moral philosophy and political philosophy. Theyre defined together as a true reasoned†¦show more content†¦In the daily scramble to get ahead, earn a profit, and outwit competitors, some people dont play by the rules. Sometimes the culprits are respected and ordinarily well-behaved persons even though they are accused of a cr ime or offense. Unfair and unscrupulous actions hinder the development of harmonious relationships between workers and co-workers, and between workers and supervisors. A person who cannot be trusted to do the right thing, fails to win the respect of others. It should be recognized, however, that ethical dilemmas are faced by people at all levels within an organization. Various firms have experienced breaches of ethics. The respected business firms suffer damage to their reputation when questions concerning ethical behavior arise. This is one of the reason formal codes of ethics, developed by many business organizations, and trade associations are popular today. Code of ethics is simply a compilation of the rules that are meant to govern the conduct of members of a particular organization or profession. A recent survey found that 94% of the fortune 500 service and industrial companies have a written code of ethics (American Marketing Association). Companies and trade associations exp ect their members to abide by such rules as a condition of their engaging in the profession. There are at least two noteworthy limitations to codes of ethics. First, the written rules are sometimes so vague and general they prove to be of little value.Show MoreRelatedBusiness Ethics : Ethics And Business943 Words   |  4 Pagesdiscussions in Business is Ethics. Some people believe that the decisions businesses make in interest of the business has no place in ethics and that they are essentially amoral. These businesses believe that their main objective is to simply make a profit and that it does not affect the success of the business. Whereas some businesses believe that they have to take ethics into consideration, in order for their business to be a success. Richard T. De George (1999) states that ethics and business do notRead MoreThe Ethics Of Business Ethics1471 Words   |  6 PagesReview Nowadays, the concern for business ethics is growing rapidly in the business community around the world. Business ethics are focused on the judgment of decisions taken by managers and their behaviors. The issue regarding these judgments is the norms and cultures that shape these judgments. Business ethics are concerned about the issue, how will the issue be solved and how will it move ahead along the transition analysis as well (Carroll, 2014). Business ethics can be addressed at differentRead MoreEthics And Ethics Of Business Ethics1304 Words   |  6 PagesBusiness Ethics Varun Shah University of Texas at Dallas Business Ethics Morals are a crucial part of life. Without having principles one would never be able to distinguish the right from wrong and good from evil. Just as it applies to life in general, ethics is an integral part of doing business as well. When we here the term Business Ethics in our work place, we usually do not take it seriously and brush it off saying ‘it’s just a simple set of basic rules like not cheating and so on’. ThisRead MoreThe Ethics Of Business Ethics Essay1097 Words   |  5 PagesResource A discusses how ethics is crucial in business. There are three key ideas used to understand this. Firstly, making ethically wrong decisions tend to cause more upset than other general mistakes as purposeful unethical actions are not as easily forgiven or forgotten. Secondly, ethics provides businesses with a broader understanding of everything to do with their business. Business ethics is effectively just business it its larger human context. Thirdly, being unethical ca n tarnish the publicRead MoreThe Ethics Of Business Ethics1064 Words   |  5 Pages    Business Ethics Ethics can be viewed as the rules and values that determine goals and actions people should follow when dealing with other human beings. However, business ethics can be defined as moral principles of a business. It examines moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment. Generally, it has both normative and descriptive dimensions. Organization practice and career specialization are regarded as normative whereas academics attempting to understand business behaviourRead MoreThe Ethics Of Business Ethics757 Words   |  4 Pagesdeciding what to do in certain situations, ethics is what guides an individual to act in a way that is good, or right. Those involved in business settings apply ethics to business situations, known as business ethics. It is expected of businesses, small and large, to follow business ethics. There is a particular framework businesses are to follow. However, the reoccurring news headlines of poor business ethics prove differently. Poor busine ss ethics include bribery, corporate accounting scandalsRead MoreEthics And Ethics Of Business Ethics1200 Words   |  5 PagesEthics meaning in simple way for average person is what is right from wrong. According to Chris MacDonald (2010)† Ethics† can be defined as the critical, structured examinations of how we should behave - in particular, how we should constrain the pursuit of self-interest when our actions affect others. â€Å"Business ethics is the applied ethics discipline that address the moral features of commercial activity (Business ethics, 2008).Working in ethical way in business has a lot of benefits which can attractRead MoreBusiness Ethics Essay944 Words   |  4 PagesUnderstanding Business Ethics Unit 37: National Diploma Assignment brief TASK 1: Scenario: Business ethics - a study of a selected company With growing interest among consumers regarding the business ethics of the businesses brands that consumers buy, Westminster council wants to conduct an independent review of some of the organisations that sell their goods and services in the borough. You have been asked to select one of the following brands and conduct research into their business ethics. Read MoreThe Ethics Of The Business Ethics1431 Words   |  6 Pages BUSINESS ETHICS INTRODUCTION:- Presentation Ethics are exceptionally regular and essential good esteem that helps us to take the right choice where we think that it hard to pick between our own advantages and the correct thing to do. We are going to talk about three sections of morals Behavioral morals, Bounded ethicality and last one is irreconcilable situation. As from the names of these parts of morals, its verging on clarifying the significance of it. It clarifies why great individualsRead MoreThe Ethics Of Business Ethics Essay2711 Words   |  11 PagesBusiness Ethics Business ethics is a type of professional ethics or applied ethics which examines moral problems and ethical principles that come up in a corporate environment. It is applied to every aspect of conducting business. According to Milton Friedman, a company has the responsibility to generate as much revenue as it can while still conforming to the basic rules that society has set. These rules include the ones embodied in customs as well as in law. Similarly, Peter Drucker stated that

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Impact Of Information Architecture - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1316 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? In recent years, as the technology is changing to our society, people are more relying on Internet to find out the solutions for their everyday needs. As some instances, online shopping, learning, processing transactions, watching movies and making easy communications are usual activities today for most of the modern people. In between, there is no doubt about that government related issues are important for the residents or locals and foreigners of the country. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Impact Of Information Architecture" essay for you Create order There is no way to avoid those transactions if the person is visiting or living in a country and those transactions are also time consuming if try to process manually, for the reasons of travel time, waiting time and other unexpected matters (forgetting of important document and etc). So, governments try to provide the most of the transactions to be able to process via online partly for some of the transactions and some completely. But, there are some difficulties for the expect and the persons who are not familiar with internet so, it is really important to be user friendly and having simple layout in order to be able to use easily by both novice and expert user. In this paper, the studies regarding Information Architecture and Design required to consider when we are to going to develop a user-friendly and good-quality website. I chose the Immigration Checkpoints Authority (ICA) e-government website à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? and made justification the site according to my studies regarding information architecture and design concepts especially usability views. Literature Review There are many different views on information architecture with many different areas. Information architecture is the practice of structuring information (knowledge or data) which are structured according to their context in user interaction or larger databases. Rosenfeld expresses the basic concept of IA as the interlinking of three major components: users (who they are, what their information-seeking behaviors and needs are), content (metadata, volume, formats, structure, and organization), and context (business value, business model, culture, politics, resources and resource constraints). Most of the website are developed emphasize on the userà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s requirements and goal. It is essential to consider the information architecture concepts in most of the website in order to let the user with usefulness, usability, efficiency and effectiveness when using the site. While designing the portal site, the first things to think about the target user and user groups and should consider what the user needs, what kind of task are user perform. Moreover, the mental/cognitive aspects should think such as attention (structuring information, use of alert mechanisms and colors,), memory (short-term memory, iconic memory, long-term memory), and the behavioral aspects such as information needs should be well thought-out to match with the usability concepts for the portal website. Furthermore, the interaction design are need to consider in order to let the site is attractive and well-designed especially navigation, search system. Case studies based on ICA website The Immigration Checkpoints Authority (ICA), e-government site, provides many services and functions including issuing of travel documents and identity cards to Singapore citizens and issuing various immigration passes and permits to foreigners. In this site, e-appointment, registration the IC online, applying the studentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s pass for the foreign student via electronically and more services can be performed via this site. Figure-1 ICA website 1. Focus user group This ICA website targets different user groups such as citizens, permanent residents and visitors of the country (Singapore) and information are placed under the different user groups. 2. User Mental/ Cognitive Aspects 2.1 Perception and Attention In this site, the developer uses the alert mechanisms to grab reader attention for example; there is a flash image in the middle centre of the home page to be attractive to user. As information is presented with ample spaces, and text is legible and distinguishable from the background, so the website can be perceived easier by user. (According to the type of users, patterns are used with consistent text size and different colors to attract the userà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s focus). 2.2 Memory Iconic memory In this portal, the images and icons are used in terms of improvement of iconic memory. Short term memory (working memory) mental processing Information is well categorized to support the user short-term memory. So, the user can emphasize on relevant information and do not need to confuse with non-related information. Long term memory knowledge The design supports the long term memory by the recognition of user with using consistent menus, navigation. 3. Interaction design 3.1 Navigation The navigation system is consistent and the global navigation system, persistent navigation, is provided in the whole transaction process. In figure-2, it helps the user navigate the site to find the areas of interest to them and shows users where they are within the site and how to get other page. Furthermore, local navigation uses the within a specific site section, for example,à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? visitors service, entry visa, visit pass, studentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s pass and birth passà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?. This portal support, breadcrumbs, horizontal list of labels which shows current site location and the path the user go through within this site, and helps user where on website they are and enable user to go back previous page throughout the hierarchical navigation. Breadcrumbs Contextual Navigation Local NavigationFigure-2 3.2 Search Figure -3 This site provides the powerful search feature for the user to find the information which is more desired information of the users. In figure-3, there is search box to find the information and also provide advanced search with the drop down list lets the user chooses à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“within this siteà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? or à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“within all government siteà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?. Choosing the latter option will help the user to be able to search among all of the Singaporeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s government websites such as Ministry of Health and Ministry of Manpower. 3.3 Categorization In ICA site, there are different categorization for user group and the information and services are categorized for each user group. As an example, a permanent resident can find the related information and services under the category of Permanent Residents. 4. Suggestion for improving site Although the ICA website is nice and user-friendly, still there are some features and technologies to comment perfect. I believe the transactions will be more easier if the website support the user account control feature because a user will only need to fill in their personal information for very first time only and will be stored in the database and later the information will be retrieved when the user login and that data will be able to use for the transactions need. Getting updated is really important in the Information Technology. In addition, very latest technologies will not only help the web-site to be looked well but also provides the new and convenient features such as auto-complete function and real-time announcements. Moreover, the network navigation links which are useful other government siteà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s links that may be related to this site should be support in this site. The features described above are not the vital features. However, it is really better to have those features than doesnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t have. I believe that implementing those will make the web-site become more and more perfect. Conclusion In conclusion, the government related issues are essential for every country and the government and people turn into use the e-government website for processing their transaction vial online. In between, those websites should have usability and usefulness for both expect and novice user (e.g. ICA website). So, it should be aware to consider the information architecture in designing and developing the website. According to my literature review, I studied a case, ICA website, in the point of usability concepts especially users, the interaction design between user and the system. According to my studies, user can get more satisfaction when using this ICA website than going physically to ICA building and process the transactions manually. I realize that the website will be more usability, effectiveness and efficiency by focusing on my suggestion base on information architecture issues.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Freedom Is For The Braves - 873 Words

Freedom is for the Braves Being an American means more than just a section filled out on a person’s birth certificate. Being an American is an honor and is something to be proud of. Here, everyone has a choice in what religion to believe in, what to eat, and what to do. People even have the right to choose who should be this great nation s leader. Here, people are given opportunities in every corner, and this freedom was achieved because thousands of men and women were willing to give their lives, in one way or another, in order for us to live the way we do today. An American takes the democratic government presented as an opportunity to help the United States strive for an even greater future; an American also gives back to the nation, serves in any way they possibly can, and an American acknowledges the history behind the success of this nation. A person cannot say that they are a true American if they don t know the history of the nation. The past is what has provided the present and has changed th e future. The history of this nation is so rich. Our flag has so much more meaning to it. Each shape and color has some kind of significant symbol. The stripes on the flag symbolize the thirteen colonies and the stars represent the fifty states. There are so many stories behind every square foot of land this country has to offer. People do not realize it, but America has gone through so much to become the nation it is today. A true American is excited to learnShow MoreRelatedFreedom Is For The Braves872 Words   |  4 PagesFreedom is For the Braves Being an American means more than just a section filled out on a person’s birth certificate. Being an American is an honor and is something to be proud of. Here, everyone has a choice in what religion to believe in, what to eat, and what to do. People even have the right to choose who should be this great nation s leader. Here, people are given opportunities in every corner, and this freedom was achieved because thousands of men and women were willing to give their livesRead MoreBrave New World and Individual Freedom785 Words   |  4 Pagesto individual freedom? â€Å"Community, Identity, Stability.† -- The motto that shapes and defines the entire civilized world. Civilians like Lenina believe that the motto has given them their individual freedom. â€Å"I am free. Free to have the most wonderful time. Everybodys happy nowadays.† (Page 79) Ironically, Huxley was trying to convey the exact opposite message. The motto really speaks of a heavy price paid -- freedom in exchange for collective happiness. Freedom to feel, freedom of identity,Read MoreAldous Huxley s Brave New World Freedom1236 Words   |  5 Pages If given the choice to live a life of either freedom or oppression, most would choose freedom. However, in Aldous Huxley’s Brave New world freedom is an option none of his characters possess. Due to the global depression in the 1920s and 1930s, Aldous Huxley warns of individuality and self-perseverance in Brave New World. World war 1 and the great depression had a large impact on BNW. Figures of WWI provided material to BNW like†[Benito Mussolini who] led an authoritarian government thatRead MoreA Free And Home Of The Brave : The Freedom And Its Modern Day Reality1500 Words   |  6 Pagesland of the free and home of the brave seem to be invisibly engraved within every star and stripe. However, the promises of freedom that are established during a country’s eager beginnings rarely come into play in the manner in which they are intended. Flags are meant to be a representation of the ideals of a free country; however, flags are often a facade for the unsettling inequalities that exist within a nation. In the young country of Eritrea, the road to freedom and its modern day reality exhibitsRead MoreAnalyzing Structure And Point Of View1494 Words   |  6 PagesAnalyzing Structure and Point of View In Brave New World, Aldous Huxley basically divided the novel into three parts. The first part is to introduce an imagined future in which everything is unconventional. He gave us details for the fertilizing room and the world was built based on the ideas on Community, Identity, and Stability. The second part is to plunge the readers into the Brave New World and to give the view of different characters in the book, for example the ideal citizens Henry FosterRead MoreBrave New World By Aldous Huxley919 Words   |  4 Pages In Brave New World, by Aldous Huxley, the social boundaries that we have today regarding sex does not exist, families are obsolete as citizens are made in Bokanovsky’s Process (one that does not require sex meaning, the need for parents is gone), and the government conditions their citizens from early ages to keep stability throughout its regime. Brave New World follows protagonist Bernard (and his hidden love for nature and struggle for freedom) through this society, revealing all of it’s gloryRead MoreEssay on Brave New World: A Society of False Happiness1663 Words   |  7 Pagesis a dystopia. Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World is in 26th century England. With the help of advanced technology and drugs, happiness fills the lives of the people living at that time period. But, the people are missing out on one of the most important feelings of life. That is sorrow or unhappiness. The society in Brave New World is very different from modern-day society; many aspects of life are removed such as family, monogamy, and religion. The citizens of Brave New World live in false happinessRead MoreThe Social and Political Attitudes of Brave New World1373 Words   |  6 Pagesyou adapt with no freedom of thought, speech, or happiness in general? In the novel Brave New World by Aldous Huxley, there are many different attitudes portrayed with the purpose to make the reader think of the possible changes in our society and how they co uld affect its people. Brave New World is an unsettling, loveless and even sinister place. This is because Huxley endows his ideal society with features calculated to alienate his audience. Typically, reading Brave New World elicits theRead MoreEssay on Imagine a Brave New World1255 Words   |  6 Pages Imagine a Brave New World  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚      Imagine living in a world without mothers and fathers, a place in which all those around you are human clones with no personality, a vast array of people that are not seen as individuals but a social body. This society results from the absence of spirituality and family, the obsession with physical pleasure, and the misuse of technology. The society described above, becomes a reality in A Brave New World, a novel depicting how the advancement ofRead MoreComparison between The Chrysalids and Brave New World892 Words   |  4 PagesStage 1 English Studies Extended Study – Connected Texts In this essay I will compare two novels which deal with similar themes but in significantly different ways: â€Å"The Chrysalids†, a science fiction novel by John Wyndham published in 1955 and â€Å"Brave New World†, a novel by Aldous Huxley published in 1932. The story in â€Å"The Chrysalids† takes place thousands of years in the future in a rural society similar to our world before the invention of modern technology such as telephones, cars, etc. The

A Study on the Effects and Treatment Free Essays

Alcohol related mishaps and accidents remain the largest concern of society and in response to this more and more sectors of society have been implementing rules to curb the negative effects of teenage drinking.   There is no doubt that society has seen the negative consequences of teenage drinking. In a national probability sample of 4,023 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17, it was found that 15% of the sample used alcohol, 10% used marijuana, and 2% reported hard drug use in the past year (Farrell, 2006, p 284)). We will write a custom essay sample on A Study on the Effects and Treatment or any similar topic only for you Order Now    This means that the problem of underage or teenage drinking is even more prevalent than other substances. Although some alcohol consumption among adolescents is considered normative, there is great concern for the number of teens who are exhibiting signs of alcohol abuse or dependence with 7% of the above sample meeting diagnostic criteria for alcohol, marijuana, or hard drug abuse or dependence. Trends in alcohol use reported in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicate that binge drinking (five or more drinks on one occasion during the 30 days prior to the survey) has shown little variation over the past several years, ranging from 31.3% in 1991 to 33.4% in 1997 to 31.5% in 1999 (Eaton, 2005, p. 79). Drinking continues to be a problem among youth and needs to be targeted specifically.   This drinking problem has led to a number of problems such school absenteeism and failure, depression, risky behaviors (especially driving under the influence), addiction, and death. This brief discourse, shall tackle the issue of alcohol abuse in teenagers as well as the possible treatments that can be done.   It shall also provide an etiological perspective of the problem in order to show the different factors that affect teenage alcoholism. Working as a school counselor for this age group, I agree with the American Academy of Child and Adolescents Psychiatry’s Report (2007) which states that the following groups are most at risk for alcohol abuse: 1) teenagers with a family history of addiction, 2) teenagers suffering from depression, 3) teenagers suffering with low self-esteem, and 4) teenagers that have academic problems. It has been shown that from the following groups the teenagers with a history of alcohol have higher rates of alcohol addiction with over 42% of the sample size coming from that background. The next group is that of those who were drinking because they were upset with a rate of 40% while the rest admitted that they usually drink because of low self-esteem and peer pressure which accounts for 25% of the teenagers (Farrell, 2006, p.284).   The number of teenagers that drink due to academic problems has steadily been on the rise since 1998 and is now at a rate of 25% of the teenagers.   From the list, one could argue that most teenagers have been in one or more of its categories at one time in their lives. Etiological Approach: The article, Etiology of Alcoholism Reconsidered, is an insightful article that provides a biophysical analysis of the problem.   Alcohol related mishaps and accidents remain the largest concern of society and in response to this more and more sectors of society have been taking steps to understand the nature of the problem.   One such approach is the biophysical approach conducted by Vailliant and Milofsky on the Etiological Approach to Alcoholism. It is theorized in the study conducted by Vailliant and Milofsky that there are other factors that must be considered when studying the problem of alcoholism.   According to the authors, there are personality and childhood influences that must be examined in order to arrive at a better understanding of the problem. In the study conducted, Vailliant and Milofsky studied many different factors and collected different types of date including ethnicity, heredity, psychological instability, childhood and adult personality variables, and family background (Vailliant and Milofsky, 1982, p43).   The data that was collected from all of this was then used to quantify the variance of each of the different etiological factors. It was from the data analytic strategy that Vailliant and Milofsky were able to draw the conclusion that whenever there are correlations that exist between alcoholism and certain behavioral patterns or symptoms, it is usually alcoholism that is the cause of such behavior or symptom rather than it being the result (Vailliant and Milofsky, 1982, p483). Alcoholism is, according to the authors, not so much a disorder whose etiological causes are personality and behavior but rather, it is a precedent for such behaviors.   It was also noted from the study that â€Å"premorbid antisocial behavior† is a major contributor to the etiology of alcoholism. Another important finding in the article is the fact that while Vailliant and Milofsky greatly downplayed the role of child antisocial behavior, it played a significant role in most of the categories. As with the other etiological factors, it has been shown that there are correlations that have been overlooked or underrepresented in the study conducted by Vailliant and Milofsky.   As such, this has led to the theory of Zucker that in order for there to be an accurate etiological study, there must be a study that is conducted over â€Å"developmental time† and inclusive of â€Å"different levels of data† since it is only through this process that a proper understanding can be arrived at (Zucker 1986). There are, however, still certain researchers who argue that this study was not significant in that it failed to account for certain factors or relationships such as that of antisocial behavior and personality factors which was thought to be underestimated in the study.   This does not detract, however, that the study process used presented an angle that was quantifiable and perhaps accurate of the etiology of alcoholism.    How to cite A Study on the Effects and Treatment, Papers

Winogradsky Column Discription free essay sample

Winogradsky column description Introduction The experiment of Winogradsky column is to observe microbiology interaction of microbes using pond mud. The aim of this paper is to describe structural and chemical features in Winogradsky column and to show the acknowledgement of microbial cells in Winogradsky column. Materials of experiment Pond mud Calcium sulfate Calcium carbonate Shredded paper Pond water Cylinder Aluminum foil Methods 1. Prepare pond mud 2. Add calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate 3. Add piece of paper 4. Add pond water 5. Seal top of the column 6. Put beside window Process (sequence of the reaction)The less of oxygen makes oxygen enrichment at the top as well as anaerobic condition at the bottom (O2 gradient). Clostridium and other anaerobic bacteria dominate under anaerobic conditions at the bottom. Cellulose from the paper into glucose and that would be a trigger for the bacteria (Clostridium) to take in the glucose and partially break it down by fermentation to gain energy and to produce ethanol and organic acids as by-products. We will write a custom essay sample on Winogradsky Column Discription or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The by-products from Clostridium feed into other bacteria nearby in the deep mud of the column. Desulfovibrio bacteria use these organic molecules as carbon sources.At the interface of sulfide –containing mud and the more aerobic pond water, bacteria grow that can oxidize sulfur. An example is the filamentous bacterium Beggiatoa. In one metabolic strategy for survival, Beggiatoa uses H2S as an energy source and oxidizes it to sulphuric acid. The energy released by this process is used to fix carbon and produce organic molecules. (Perry, et al. ,  2002) In the pond water, aerobic photosynthetic microbes abound. These microbes include cyanobacteria and algae, which harvest light energy and release O2 as a by-product.With the energy from sunlight, the microbes fix CO2 and produce organic molecules. Algae and cyanobacteria appear quickly in the upper portion of the water column, where sunlight is abundant. By producing oxygen, these organisms help to keep this zone aerobic. This watery top layer contains an interesting diversity of microbes, green algae, cyanobacteria, various aerobic bacteria, fungi and protozoa. (Delia Castro Anderson and Rosalina V. Hairston 1999) The production of oxygen gas at the top of the column helps maintain the O2 gradient.Each layer of Winogradsky column supports certain types of bacteria, which come to dominate the culture in that region. From these enriched layers, organisms can be aerobic or anaerobic techniques. (Perry, et al. ,  2002) Layers of column (Up to bottom) Water layer (green to clear) Diatoms, cyanobacteria, algae Oxygen dominated mud (light brown) Aerobic sulfide oxidizing bacteria (Beggiatoa, thiobacillus thiothrix) Rust colored zone Photoheterotrophs (Rhodospirillum, Rhodopseudomonas) Purple/reddish zone Purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatium) Green zoneGreen sulfur bacteria (Chlorobium) Sulfate reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio) An aerobic zone Anaerobic bacteria (Chrostridium) (Delia Castro Anderson and Rosalina V. Hairston 1999) Discussion (related to the questions) In the experiment, we put calcium carbonate, calcium sulfite and shredded paper. Shredded paper contains cellulose whic h enables the bacteria (Clostridium) to break it down by fermentation to gain energy. Calcium sulfite was added to make H2S gradient. The bacteria Desulfobrio use sulfite as electron receptor. Low sulfur bacteria and high sulfur bacteria make layers.Calcium carbonate was used as carbon source by sulfur bacteria. These chemical materials eventually makes cycles of them. Typically, column contains O2, H2S, CO2, ethanol, organic acids, H2SO4 and possibly other chemical compounds that consist of carbonate, sulfite and the other in pond mud. We sealed top of column and that makes O2 gradient. Desulfovibrio gains energy using organic molecules which is made by Clostridium (anaerobic bacteria) and Desulfovibrio makes H2S, so concentration of H2S would be higher at the bottom. That means there is H2S gradient in column.The sulfides are then used by anaerobic photosynthetic populations such as green sulfur, Chlorobium, and purple sulfur, Chromatium bacteria. Evidence of this is seen as purple and green patches in areas throughout the column as these phototrophs respond to gradients of light and sulfide. In nature, purple and green sulfur bacteria may be found in any fresh or marine waters as long as there is a sufficient supply of hydrogen sulfide and the water is clear enough so that light penetrates to the anoxic (anaerobic) zone. (Delia Castro Anderson and Rosalina V.

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Biology of Plants Making Food free essay sample

Photosynthesis is a biological process in which sunlight is used to prepare the nutrients for the plant with the help of the green pigment, i.e, chlorophyll. However, when the sun sets there is no way that the plant can prepare their meal. It now becomes a technology which mimics the photosynthesis the process is called artificial photosynthesis. Artificial photosynthesis is definitely worth exploring, it uses nano-sized light-sensitive materials will be converted to light energy, resulting in oxidoreductase reaction. In short, it is a useful technology that uses light energy to produce the same chemicals as in natural process. In natural way, the chlorophyll present in leaves absorbs sunlight; couple of enzymes and other proteins uses this light to split water molecules into hydrogen, electrons and oxygen (protons). Electrons and hydrogen are used to convert carbon dioxide into nutrients for the plant, and oxygen is transferred into the atmosphere.The energy from the sunlight converts into the chemical energy due to which it becomes more suitable for its storage. We will write a custom essay sample on Biology of Plants: Making Food or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In this conversion, side products are not yielded like the greenhouse gases. But, in the process carbon dioxide can be utilized in the same way as it does in plants.   For artificial photosynthesis, there are 2 main steps- the ability to collect solar energy, and the ability to split water molecules. Scientists first used a cobalt metal, phosphorus, and indium-tin-oxide electrode placed in water to create a new catalytic device that relies on current generated by external sources of energy (such as solar energy, wind energy, etc. ), A catalyst flowing through the electrode and consisting of cobalt and phosphoric acid, using the catalytic action of cobalt and phosphorus leads water to produce hydrogen and oxygen which are collected at both poles. the energy produced by the mixture of hydrogen and oxygen can be stored in proton exchange membrane fuel cells, enabling uninterrupted power supply both day and night. But splitting the water molecule is not so simple; it requires about two and a half electron volts of energy. Therefore, we need a catalyst that â€Å"pushes† the chemical reaction.The Artificial Leaf Project and MITs Artificial Photosynthesis Research are all devoted to solving the process of converting water to organic matter and releasing hydrogen and oxygen, creating a leaf that resembles the greenery of nature even more than it Optimized device to become a highly efficient solar energy conversion device. However, the research process is very difficult, but also very challenging. Researchers in this process have done many experiments, such as they have tried to use other raw materials as a catalyst, although it can catalyze the hydrolysis reaction, the effect is not as expected, only through so many experiments to add other Material, can we expect catalytic efficiency can be improved. In addition, from an environmental and practical point of view, the construction of billions of artificial plants can be far less feasible than sowing seeds for several well-chosen biofuels. On the other hand, these plants often require good soil, which deteriorates rapidly due to agricultural pressure. Biofuels have already been suspected of using land that could feed a growing population. Plus artificial photosynthesis is that you can see how these plants thrive in the desert or even in the ocean.